Monday, 24 April 2017




  1. Luo W., H. Li, K. Kotut and L. Krienitz (2017).  Molecular diversity of plankton in a tropical crater lake switching from hyposaline to subsaline conditions: Lake Oloidien, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 788:205-229.


  1. Krienitz L., C. Bock, P.K. Pawan, K. Dadheech, K. Kotut, W.Luo and M. Schagerl (2016).  An Underexplored Resource for Biotechnology: Selected Microphytes of East African in Soda Lakes and Adjacent Waters. In Soda Lakes of East Africa by M. Schagerl (Ed). pp 323-343ISBN: 978-3-319-28620-4 (Print) 978-3-319-28622-8 (Online) Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland.
  2. Oduor S.O. and K. Kotut (2016).  Soda Lakes of the East African Rift System: The Past, the Present and the Future. In Soda Lakes of East Africa by M. Schagerl (Ed). pp 365-374 ISBN: 978-3-319-28620-4 (Print) 978-3-319-28622-8 (Online) Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland
  3.  Krienitz L., D Krienitz, P.K. Dadheech, T. Hübener,  K. Kotut, W. Luo, K. Teubner, and  W. D. Versfeld(2016). Food algae for Lesser Flamingos: a stocktaking. Hydrobiologia 775: 21-50


  1. Dadheech, P.K., Mahmoud, H., Kotut, K., Krienitz, L, 2014. Desertifilum fontinale sp. nov. (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) from a warm spring in East Africa, based on conventional and molecular studies. Fottea, Olomouc, 14(2): 129–140



  1.  Metcalf, J.S., Banack, S.A., Kotut, K., Krienitz, L., Codd, G.A., 2013. Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaiasminor. Chemosphere 90: 835 – 839
  2. Krienitz, L., Dadheech, P.K.& Kotut, K., 2013. Mass developments of a small sized ecotype of Arthrospira fusiformis in Lake Oloidien, Kenya, a new feeding ground for Lesser Flamingos in East Africa. Fottea, Olomouc, 13(2): 215–225.
  3. Krienitz, L. Dadheech, P.K., Jutta Fastner, Kotut, K. 2013. The rise of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria in Lake Naivasha, Great African Rift Valley, Kenya. Harmful Algae 27: 42 – 51
  4. Dadheech, P.K., Glockner, G., Casper, P., Kotut, K., Mazzoni, C.J., Mbedi, S. & Krienitz, L. 2013. Cyanobacterial diversity in the hot spring, pelagic and benthic habitats of a tropical soda lake. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 85: 389 – 401.



  1.  Krienitz, L., Dadheech, P.K., and Kotut, K. 2012. Mass developments of the cyanobacterium Anabaenopsis and Cyanospira(Nostocales) in the soda lakes of Kenya: ecological and systematic implications.Hydrobiologia(DOI 10.1007/s10750-012-1346-z).
  2.  Luo, W. Kotut, K. and Krienitz, L. 2012. Hidden diversity of plankton in the soda lake Nakuru, Kenya, during a phase of low salinity revealed by SSU rRNA gene clone library. Hydrobiologia(DOI 10.1007/s10750-012-1310-y).
  3.  Krienitz, L., Bock, C.,Kotut, K. and Proschold, T.2012.Genotypic diversity of Dictyosphaerium-morphospecies (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae) in African inland waters, including the description of four new genera. Fottea, Olomouc, 12(2): 231-253.
  4.  Ngángá, V.G., Kariuki, F.W. andKotut, K. 2012. A Comparison of the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of greywater from water deficient households in Homabay Town and Githurai Estates in Kenya. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 5:110-118.
  5.  Kariuki, F.W., Ngángá, V.G. andKotut, K. 2012. Hydrochemical characteristics, plant nutrients and metals in household greywater and soils in Homa Bay Town. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 5:103-109.
  6.  Dadheech, P.K., Mahmoud, H,Kotut, K. and Krienitz, L.2012. Haloleptolyngbyaalcalis gen. et sp. nov., a new filamentous cyanobacterium from the soda lake Nakuru, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 691: 269–283
  7.  Krienitz, L., Bock, C, Kotut, K. & Luo, W. 2012. Picocystissalinarum (Chlorophyta) in saline lakes and hot springs of East Africa. Phycologia, 51: 22–32.



  1. Kariuki, F.W.,Kotut, K. and Ngángá, V.G., 2011. The potential of a low cost technology for greywater treatment. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 4: 32-39.
  2.  Kotut, K. & Krienitz, L., 2011. Does the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis exist in the soda lakes of East Africa? Hydrobiologia, 664: 219–225.
  3.  Kotut, K, Nganga, G.G., Kariuki, F.W., 2011. Physico-chemical and microbial quality of greywater from various households in Homa Bay town. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 4:162-169.


  1.  Dadheech, P.K., Ballot, A., Casper, P.,Kotut, K., Novelo, E., Lemma, B, Proschold, T. &Krienitz, L. 2010. Phylogenetic relationship and divergence among planktonic strains of Arthrospira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) of African, Asian and American origin deduced by 16S–23S ITS and phycocyanin operon sequences.Phycologia, 49 (4): 361–372.
  2.  Krienitz L. & Kotut K. 2010. Fluctuating algal food populations and the occurrence of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in three Kenyan Rift Valley lakes. Journal of Phycology, 46: 1088–1096.



  1. Ballot, A.,Kotut, K., Novelo, E. &Krienitz, L., 2009. Changes of phytoplankton communities in Lakes Naivasha and Oloidien, examples of degradation and salinization of lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley. Hydrobiologia 632:359–363 (Published online in June 2009)
  2.  Dadheech, P.K., Krienitz, L.,Kotut, K., Ballot, A. & Casper, P. 2009. Molecular detection of uncultured cyanobacteria and aminotransferase domains for cyanotoxin production in sediments of di¡erentKenyan lakes.FEMS Microbiology Ecology 68: 340–350



  1.  Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Krause, E.,Kotut, K., Pütz, S., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. &Codd, G.A. 2006. Analysis of the cyanotoxinsanatoxin-a andmicrocystins in Lesser Flamingo feathers. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry 88: 159-167.
  2.  Kotut, K., Ballot, A., Krienitz, L. 2006. Toxic cyanobacteria and its toxins in standing waters of Kenya: implications for water resource use. Journal of Water & Health 4: 233-245.



  1. Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S.2005. Cyanobacteria in hot springs of East Africa and their potential toxicity. Algological Studies 117: 297-306.
  2.  Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Codd, G.A.,Kotut, K., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. 2005. Contribution of toxic cyanobacteria to the massive deaths of Lesser Flamingos at saline-alkaline lakes of Kenya. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 29: 783-786.
  3.  Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C. & Pflugmacher, S.2005. Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in the alkaline crater lakes Sonachi and Simbi, Kenya. Harmful Algae 4: 139-150.



  1.  Ballot, A., Krienitz, L.,Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A. & Pflugmacher, S.2004. Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in three alkaline Rift valley lakes of Kenya – Lakes Bogoria, Nakuru and Elmenteita. Journal of Plankton Research 26: 925-935.



  1.  Krienitz, L., Ballot, A.,Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pütz, S., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A. &Pflugmacher, S.2003. Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 43. 141-148.
  2.  Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C.,Kotut, K. &Krienitz, L. 2003.Cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Limnologica 33, 2-9.
  3.  Codd, G.A., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. & Kotut, K.2003.A cyano-anomaly? Cyanobacterial toxins as contributors to Lesser Flamingo mass deaths. Harmful Algae News. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission UNESCO 24:1-2.
  4. Codd, G.A., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. &Kotut, K.2003. Susceptibility of flamingos to cyanobacterial toxins via feeding. Veterinary Record 152: 722-723.



  1.  Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Wiegand, C., Kotut, K., Codd, G.A. & Pflugmacher, S. 2002. Cyanotoxin producing bloom of Anabaena flos-aquae, Anabaena discoidea and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal of Applied Botany 76, 179-183.



  1. Kotut, K., Njuguna, S.G., Muthuri, F.M., &Krienitz, L. 1999. The physico-chemical conditions of Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, a new man made lake in northern Kenya. Limnologica29; 377 - 392.



  1.  Kotut, K., Krienitz, L & Muthuri, F.M. 1998. Temporal changes in phytoplankton structure and composition at the Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, Kenya. Hydrobiologia368; 41 - 59.
  2.  Kotut, K., Krienitz, L., Wolfram, S., Monika, E. &Grigorszky, I. 1998. Some interesting cyanoprocaryotes and algae from Turkwel Gorge reservoir, Kenya. Algological Studies91; 37 - 55.
  3.  Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., &Hegewald, E. 1998. Some interesting coccal green algae (Chlorellales) from Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, Kenya. Algological Studies91; 57 - 69.



  1. Patterson, G.&Kiplagat, W.K. 1995. The influence of diel climatic cycle on the depth time distribution of phytoplankton and photosynthesis in a shallow equatorial lake (Lake Baringo), Kenya. Hydrobiologia 1 - 8.