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Latest Publications


  1. Jelagat, J., Budambula, N. L., Ngari, M., & Budambula, V. (2023). Polydrug Use among Students in a Public University in a Lower Middle-Income Country. BioMed Research International
  2. Nzivo M. M., C.N. Waruhiu,J. M. Kang’ethe, and N. L. M. Budambula (2023). HIV Virologic Failure among Patients with Persistent Low-Level Viremia in Nairobi, Kenya: It Is Time to Review the >1000 Virologic Failure Threshold. BioMed Research International 
  3. Wekesa, E. N., Kimani, N. M., Kituyi, S. N., Omosa, L. K., & Santos, C. B. (2023). Therapeutic potential of the genus Zanthoxylum phytochemicals: A theoretical ADME/Tox analysis. South African Journal of Botany, 162, 129-141.
  4. Muturi, M., Mwatondo, A., Nijhof, A.M., Akoko, J., Nyamota, R., Makori, A., Nyamai, M., Nthiwa, D., Wambua, L., Roesel, K. and Thumbi, S.M., 2023. Ecological and subject-level drivers of interepidemic Rift Valley fever virus exposure in humans and livestock in Northern Kenya. Scientific Reports, 13(1), p.15342.
  5. Karuri, H. 2023. Nematode community response to intensive tomato production in the tropics. Rhizosphere, 25: 10068.
  6. Mokuah, D., Karuri, H. and Nyaga, J.M., 2023. Food web structure of nematode communities in irrigated rice fields. Heliyon, 9: e13183.


  1. Chebet, D., Musila, F. M., Kituyi, S. N., Muthike, G. M., & Kaigongi, M. M. (2022). Molecular Phylogeny of Selected Kenyan Eucalyptus Species Inferred from MatK, rbcL and TrnL-F Genes and Their Suitability for Power Transmission Poles. Diversity, 14(7), 563.
  2. Wachira, J. M., Kiplimo, D., Thuita, M., Masso, C., & Mwirichia, R. (2022). Community Structure of Nitrifying and Denitrifying Bacteria from Effluents Discharged into Lake Victoria, Kenya. Current Microbiology, 79(9), 1-10.
  3. Maina, S., Karuri, H., & Mugweru, J. (2022). Nematode diversity and its association with soil properties in monocrop pigeon pea. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 100336.
  4. Maina, S., Karuri, H., & Mugweru, J. (2022). Nematode assemblages, food web indices and metabolic footprints in maize-pigeon pea agro-ecosystems. Heliyon, e10189.
  5. Kemboi,B.,Karuri,H., Nyaga,J. & Kingsbury,A.(2022).Vertical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Sweet Potato. Journal of Nematology,54(1) -.
  6. Riungu, P. M., Nyaga, J. M., Githaiga, M. N., & Kairo, J. G. (2022). Value Chain and Sustainability of Mangrove Wood Harvesting in Lamu, Kenya. Trees, Forests and People, 100322.
  7. Bwana BK, Mireji PO, Obiero GF, Gakii C, Akoth MO, Mugweru JN, et al. (2022) Annotations of novel antennae-expressed genes in male Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse flies. PLoS ONE 17(8): e0273543.
  8. Mbatha, A., Githaiga, M. N., Kiplagat, K., Kairo, J., & Mungai, F. (2022). How Sustainable is Mangrove Harvesting in Lamu? An Analysis of Forest Structure. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 1-20.
  9. Phyllys, K., Ziro, O. W., Kissinger, G., Ngari, M., Budambula, N. L., & Budambula, V. (2022). Poly-drug use among female and male commercial sex workers visiting a drop in centre in Mombasa County, Kenya. PLOS Global Public Health, 2(11), e0001247.
  10. Kenya, E., Kinyanjui, G., Kipnyargis, A., Kinyua, F., Mwangi, M., Khamis, F., & Mwirichia, R. (2022). Amplicon-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in three tropical forest soils in Kenya. Heliyon, e11577.
  11. Leiririo, J.L., Karuri, H., & Nyaga, J. M. (2022). Nematode-based soil food web condition in mung bean under semi-arid conditions, Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 100465.
  12. Muli J.K., Neondo J.O., Kamau P.K., Michuki G.N., Odari E. and Budambula N.L.M. (2022).  Genetic diversity and population structure of wild and cultivated Crotalaria species based on genotyping-by-sequencing. PLoS ONE 17(9): e0272955.
  13. Akoth P., H. M. Makonde, N.L.M. Budambula and H. I. Boga (2022).   Morphological and molecular characterisation of termite species in Taita Taveta County, Kenya. Journal of Microbiology Research.
  14. Omire, A., Neondo, J., Budambula, N. L.M., Wangai, L., Ogada, S., and Mweu, C. (2022).  Genetic diversity and population structure of doum palm (Hyphaene compressa) using genotyping by sequencing. Frontiers in Genetics.
  15. Kanyi, N., Karuri, H., Nyasani, J. and Mwangi, B. 2022. Termite species and functional groups in maize intercrop systems in Machakos County, Kenya. Crop Protection, 153: 10588
  16. Karuri, H. (2022). Root and soil health management approaches for control of plant-parasitic nematodes in sub-Saharan Africa. Crop Protection, 105841.


  1. Kiriamburi, J., Muturi, J., Mugweru, J., Forsgren, E., & Nilsson, A. (2021). Efficacy of two commercial disinfectants on Paenibacillus larvae spores.
  2. Kanyi, N.C., Karuri, H., Nyasani, J.O. and Mwangi, B., 2021. Land-use effects on termite assemblages in Kenya. Heliyon 7, e08588.
  3. Njeru, J., Nthiwa, D., Akoko, J., Oyas, H., & Bett, B. (2021). Incidence of Brucella infection in various livestock species raised under the pastoral production system in Isiolo County, Kenya. BMC veterinary research, 17(1), 1-12.
  4. Muriuki S.W., M. S. Rengan and N. L. M. Budambula (2021).  Prokaryotic diversity and potentially pathogenic bacteria in vended foods and environmental samples. Annals of Microbiology 71:27
  5. Nzivo M. M.  and N. L.M. Budambula  (2021).  Mutations and Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 Compared to Selected Corona Viruses during the First Six Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review. J Pure Appl Microbiol  15(2):524-533
  6. Muli J.K. , J. O. Neondo , P. K. Kamau , E. Odari and N. L. M. Budambula (2021).  Phenomic characterization of Crotalaria germplasm for crop improvement. CABI Agric Biosci (2021) 2:10
  7. Chiwala, G., Liu, Z., Mugweru, J. N., Wang, B., Khan, S. A., Bate, P. N. N., ... & Zhang, T. (2021). A recombinant selective drug-resistant M. bovis BCG enhances the bactericidal activity of a second-line tuberculosis regimen. bioRxiv.
  8. Akoko, J. M., Pelle, R., Lukambagire, A. S., Machuka, E. M., Nthiwa, D., Mathew, C., ... & Ouma, C. (2021). Molecular epidemiology of Brucella species in mixed livestock-human ecosystems in Kenya. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-11.
  9. Maina, S., Karuri, H.W and Ng’endo R. 2021. Free-living nematode assemblages associated with maize residues and their ecological significance. Journal of Nematology, 53: e2021-38.
  10. Kiriamburi, J., Nilsson, A., Muturi, J., Mugweru, J., & Forsgren, E. (2021). Efficacy of two commercial disinfectants on Paenibacillus larvae spores. bioRxiv.
  11. Chiwala, G., Liu, Z., Mugweru, J. N., Wang, B., Khan, S. A., Bate, P. N. N., ... & Zhang, T. (2021). A recombinant selective drug-resistant M. bovis BCG enhances the bactericidal activity of a second-line tuberculosis regimen. bioRxiv.
  12. Kiama, C. W., Njire, M. M., Kambura, A. K., Mugweru, J. N., Matiru, V. N., & Wafula, E. N. (2021). Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria from Lakes Olbolosat and Oloiden, Kenya. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 15(1), 1-19.
  13. Karuri, H.W. 2021. Nematode community structure and functional guilds differ in tea fields and tropical forest. Geoderma 392, 115006.


  1. Omire A., N.L.M.  Budambula, J. Neondo, R. Gituru and C. Mweu (2020). Phenotypic diversity of doum palm (Hyphaene compressa), a semi-domesticated palm in the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya. Scientifica  .
  2. Muli J.K., J O. Neondo, P. K. Kamau and N.L.M. Budambula (2020).  Genetic diversity and use of African indigenous vegetables especially slender leaf.  International Journal of Vegetable Science
  3. Muriuki S. W., J.O Neondo and N. L.M. Budambula (2020). Detection and profiling of antibiotic resistance among culturable bacterial isolates in vended food and soil Samples. International Journal of Microbiology 
  4. Wasonga, M. A., E. E. Arunga, J. O. Neondo, J.K Muli, P.K. Kamau and  N.L.M Budambula (2020). A hybridization technique for orphan legumes: Development of an artificial interspecific pollination protocol for Crotalaria spp. Journal of Crop Improvement 
  5. Maina, S., Karuri, H. and Ngend’o, R. 2020. Nematode metabolic footprints, ecological and functional indices in tropical maize-beans agro-ecosystems under different farming practices. Acta Oecologica 108: 103622
  6. Maina, H., Karuri, H., Rotich, F. and Nyabuga, F., 2020. Impact of low-cost management techniques on population dynamics of plant-parasitic nematodes in sweet potato. Crop Protection 137:105311.
  7. Mwakha, F., Budambula, N., Neondo, J., Gichimu, B., Odari, E., & Kamau, P. et al. (2020). Witchweed’s Suicidal Germination: Can Slenderleaf Help?. Agronomy, 10(6), 873. doi: 10.3390/agronomy10060873
  8. Omire, A., Neondo, J., Budambula, N., Gituru, R., & Mweu, C. (2020). Hyphaene compressa, an important palm in the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya. Ethnobotany Research And Applications, 20. doi: 10.32859/era.20.4.1-15
  9. Omire, A., Budambula, N., Kirumbi, L., Langat, H., Kerosi, D., Ochieng, W., & Lwembe, R. (2020). Cervical Dysplasia, Infection, and Phylogeny of Human Papillomavirus in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women at a Reproductive Health Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Biomed Research International, 2020, 1-10. doi: 10.1155/2020/4945608
  10. Nthiwa D., Bett B., Odongo D., Kenya E., et al (2020). Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 176 (2020) 104929.
  11. Beckley, S.J.; Hunter, M.C.; Kituyi, S.N.; Wingate, I.; Chakraborty, A.; Schwarz, K.; Makhubu, M.P.; Rousseau, R.P.; Ruck, D.K.; de la Mare, J.-A.; Blatch, G.L.; Edkins, A.L. (2020) STIP1/HOP Regulates the Actin Cytoskeleton through Interactions with Actin and Changes in Actin-Binding Proteins Cofilin and Profilin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3152.
  12. Mwakha, F. A., Gichimu, B.M., Neondo, J.O., Kamau, P.K, Odari, E. O., Muli, J.K., Budambula, N.L.M (2020). Agro-Morphological Characterization of Kenyan Slender Leaf (Crotalaria brevidens and C. ochroleuca) Accessions. Hindawi, International Journal of Agronomy Volume 2020, Article ID 2710907, 10 pages


  1. Onipchenko VG., Kopylova NA., Kipkeev AM., Elumeeva TG., Azovsky A., Dudov SV., & Nyaga JM. (2019). Low floristic richness of afro‑alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya is related to its small area. Alpine Botany.
  2. Koskei EC., Kotut K., Nyaga J. & Oduor SO., (2019). Temporal variation in physico-chemical characteristics, phytoplankton composition and biomass in Lake Solai, Kenya. International Journal of Aquatic Science. Vol 10 issue 2, 101-111.
  3. Burstein R., Henry NJ, Collison ML., …, Ngunjiri JW., et al., (2019). Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017. Nature 574.
  4. James S.L.,  C. D Castle  ... J. W Ngunjiri.. et al ., (2019) Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 Injury  Prevention 2020;0:1–19. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494
  5. Carrasco D., Nyabuga FN, Anderbrant O, Svensson GP., et al (2019). Characterization of olfactory sensory neurons in the red clover seed weevil, Protapion trifolii (Coleoptera: Brentidae) and comparison to the closely related species P. fulvipes. Journal of Insect Physiology.
  6. Karanja DM., Mulwa OM., Muthengia JW., Mwirichia R., Karanja JT., & Mwiti JM. (2019): Effects of biocementation on some properties of cement-based materials incorporating Bacillus Species bacteria – a review, Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, DOI: 10.1080/21650373.2019.1640141
  7. Mulwa OM, Karanja JT., Muthengia JW., Karanja DM., Mwirichia R. Murithi G. (2019). Use of Bacillus Species Bacteria in Protecting the Concrete Structures from Sulphate Attack-A Review. Journal of Chemical Reviews. Vol 1, issue 4.
  8. Mutitu, D. K, Wachira, J. M, Mwirichia, R., Thiong`o, K.J., Munyao, O.M, Muriithi, G. (2019) Influence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus on compressive strength and water sorptivity in microbial cement mortar. Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 11. DOI:
  9. Maina S., Karuri H., and Ng’endo RN., (2019). Nematode soil food webs in maize agro-ecosystems and their implication on plant-parasitic nematodes. Phytoparasitica.
  10. M. M. Nzivo , R. M. Lwembe, E. O. Odari,1 J. M. Kang’ethe, and N. L. M. Budambula (2019). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), and Syphilis among Female Sex Workers in Malindi, Kenya. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases Volume 2019, Article ID 5345161, 8 pages
  11. Kiplimo D., Mugweru J., Kituyi S., Kipnyargis A., Mwirichia R. (2019). Diversity of esterase and lipase producing haloalkaliphilic bacteria from Lake Magadi in Kenya. J Basic Microbiol. 2019;1–12. DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201900353
  12. Peter Musembi, Bernerd Fulanda, James Kairo & Michael Githaiga (2019) Species composition, abundance and fishing methods of small-scale fisheries in the seagrass meadows of Gazi Bay, Kenya, Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, DOI: 10.1080/19480881.2019.1603608.
  13. Gatimbu K.K., Ogada M.J. and Budambula N.L.M. (2019). Environmental efficiency of small-scale tea processors in Kenya: an inverse data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Environment Development and sustainability.
  14. Githaiga  M.N.,  A.M. Frouws, J.G. Kairo and M. Huxham (2019). Seagrass Removal Leads to Rapid Changes in Fauna and Loss of Carbon. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
  15. Namu, J., Alakonya, A., Karuri, H., Nyaga, J., Masanga, J. Njeri, Editah. (2019). Response of Selected Kenyan Rice Cultivars to Infection by Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). J. Crop Sci. Biotech. 2019 (March) 22 (1) : 47 ~ 54
  16. Nthiwa, D. M., Alonso, S., Odongo, D., Kenya, E., Bett, B. (2019) A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod .


  1. Kinyanjui, G., Khamis, F. M.; Ombura, F. L. O., Kenya, E. U., Ekesi, S., Mohamed, S. A. (2018) Infestation Levels and Molecular Identifcation Based on Mitochondrial COI Barcode Region of Five Invasive Gelechiidae Pest Species in Kenya. Journal of Economic Entomology, XX(XX), 2018, 1–11
  2. Kipnyargis, A.C., Khamis, F.M. Kenya, E. U., Ekesi, S. & Fiaboe, K.K.M. (2018) Genetic diversity of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species attacking amaranth and nightshades in different agro-ecological zones of Kenya and Tanzania African Entomology 26(2): 407–421 (2018) DOI: ISSN 1021-3589 [Print]; 2224-8854 [Online]
  3. Nthakanio N.P. and Kenya, E. U. (2018). Role of Latent Local Technologies and Innovations to Catapult Development in Kenya. In Decolonial Pedagogy; Examining Sites of Resistance Resurgence and Renewal by Wane N.N and Todd K. L (Eds).  ISBN 978-3-030-01538-1 ISBN 978-3-030-01539-8 (eBook) Palgrave Macmillan Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
  4. Kituyi, S.N., Edkins. L.K. (2018) Hop/STIP1 depletion alters nuclear structure via depletion of nuclear structural protein emerin. ISSN 0006-291X,
  5. Bett, B., Ngwili, N., Nthiwa, D. M. and Alonso, S. (2018). Association between land use change and exposure to zoonotic pathogens – Evidence from selected case studies in Africa. IN: Reference module in food science.
  6. Nderitu, W. P., J.J. Muturi, Otieno, M., Arunga, E., Johnsson, M. (2018). Tomato Leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) (Meyrick 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) prevalence and farmer management practices in Kirinyanga County, Kenya. Journal of Entomology and Nematology, Vol. 10(6),pp.43-49.
  7. B. Niere and Karuri, H.W. (2018). Nematode Parasites of Potato and Sweet Potato in Sikora R.A., D. Coyne, J. Hallmann and P. Timper (Eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture.  Boston MA. CABI. PP 222-251. ICCN 2017047194, 2017050991; ISBN 9781786391254, 9781786391261, 9781786391247.
  8. Chhotaray C., Y. Tan, J. Mugweru, M. M. Islam, H.M. A. Hameed, S. Wang, Z. Lu, C. Wang, X. Li, S. Tan, J. Liu, T. Zhang (2018).  Advances in the development of molecular genetic tools for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 45: 281-297.
  9. Mugweru J., J Liu, G.Makafe, G. Chiwala, B. Wang, C.Wang, X. Li, Y. Tan, W. W. Yew, S. Tan and T. Zhang (2018).  Mutation EthA W21R confers co-resistance to prothionamide and ethionamide in both Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Infection and Drug Resistance 11: 891–894.
  10. Ghilamicael A.M., N. L. M. Budambula, S.E. Anami, T. Mehari and H.I. Boga (2018). Thermotolerant bacteria of biotechnological potential from hot springs in Eritrea. African Journal of Microbiology Research 12(22): 512-524. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2017.8626.
  11. Huxham M., D. Whitlock, M. Githaiga and  A. Dencer-Brown (2018).  Carbon in the Coastal Seascape: How Interactions Between Mangrove Forests, Seagrass Meadows and Tidal Marshes Influence Carbon Storage. Current Forestry Reports
  12. Muli J. K., N. Budambula, C. Mweu and S. E. Anami (2018). Drought Response in Selected Tropical Inbred Maize Lines and Relative Expression of PARP2 Gene under Limited Water Conditions. Plant 6:8-15. doi: 10.11648/j.plant.20180601.12
  13. Ghilamicael A.M., H.I. Boga, S. E. Anami, T. Mehari and N.L.M. Budambula (2018). Potential human pathogenic bacteria in five hot springs in Eritrea
    revealed by next generation sequencing. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0194554.
  14. Koech C.C., Lwembe R.M., Odari E.O., Budambula N.L.M. (2018).  Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of HTLV/HIV Co-Infection among People who inject Drugs (PWIDs): A Review.  Journal of Human Virology and Retrovirology 6(1): 00188. DOI: 10.15406/jhvrv.2017.06.00188


  1. Kairu A., Upton C., Huxhamc M. ,K. Kotut., Mbechee R., and Kairo J. (2017). From Shiny Shoes to Muddy Reality: Understanding How Meso-State Actors Negotiate the Implementation Gap in Participatory Forest Management. Society & Natural Resources Vol. 0 , Iss. 0,0.
  2. Namu J., Karuri H. W., A. Alakonya, Nyaga, J.M, and E. Njeri (2018).  Distribution of parasitic nematodes in Kenyan rice fields and their relation to edaphic factors, rainfall and temperature. Tropical Plant Pathology
  3. Nzivo M.M., R. Lwembe, E.O Odari and N.L.M.  Budambula NLM (2017). Human Herpes Virus Type 8 among Female-Sex Workers. J Hum Virol Retrovirol 5(6): 00176. DOI: 10.15406/jhvrv.2017.05.00176
  4. Muli J.K., C. Mweu, N. Budambula and S.E. Anami (2017). Yeast Extract Peptone Based Co-cultivation Media Promotes Transient GUS Expression in Tropical Maize Genotypes.  Asian Journal of Crop Science 9:
  5. Ghilamicael A.M., N. L. M. Budambula, S. E. Anami, T. Mehari and H. I. Boga (2017). Evaluation of Prokaryotic Diversity of Five Hot Springs in Eritrea. BMC Microbiology 17:203.
  6. Ghilamicael A.M., H.I. Boga, S. E. Anami, T. Mehari and N.L.M. Budambula (2017).  Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Five Hot Springs in Eritrea. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 7(12): 88-94.
  7. Ayuke O., J. Lagerlöf, G. Jorge, S. Söderlund, J.J. Muturi, B.R. Sarosh, J. Meijer (2017).  Effects of biocontrol bacteria and earthworms on the severity of Alternaria brassicae disease and the growth of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus). Applied Soil Ecology Applied Soil Ecology 117–118: 63–69.
  8. Luo W., H. Li, K. Kotut and L. Krienitz (2017).  Molecular diversity of plankton in a tropical crater lake switching from hyposaline to subsaline conditions: Lake Oloidien, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 788:205-229.
  9. Budambula V. and N. L.M. Budambula (2017). Chasing the Dragon: Drug Use and Abuse. ISBN: 9789966103024
  10. Karuri H.W, D. Olago. R. Neilson, E. Njeri, A.Opere and P. Ndegwa (2017).  Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables.  Tropical plant patholology 42:1–12 DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4
  11. Karuri, H.W., Olago, D., Neilson, R., Mararo, E. and Villinger, J., (2017). A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields. Crop Protection. 92:114-12.


  1. Mutiga M. I., P.K. Muoria, K. Kotut and H.W. Karuri (2016).  Behavioural Patterns and Responses to Human Disturbances of Wild Somali Ostriches (Struthio molybdophanes) in Samburu, Kenya.  International Journal of Advanced Research 4(8): 495-502.
  2. Imbo   M.C., N. L. M. Budambula, C.M. Mweu, J. K. Muli and S. E. Anami (2016). Genetic Transformation of Sweet Potato for Improved Tolerance to Stress: A Review.  Advances in Life Science and Technology 49:67-76
  3. Muli J.K., N. L. M. Budambula, C. Mweu, M. C. Imbo and S. E. Anami (2016).  Genetic Improvement of African Maize towards Drought Tolerance: A Review. Advances in Life Science and Technology 48: 1-9.
  4. Krienitz L., D Krienitz, P.K. Dadheech, T. Hübener,  K. Kotut, W. Luo, K. Teubner, and  W. D. Versfeld(2016). Food algae for Lesser Flamingos: a stocktaking. Hydrobiologia 775: 21-50
  5. Kambura A. K., R. K. Mwirichia, R. W.Kasili, E. N. Karanja, H. M. Makonde and H. I. Boga (2016). Bacteria and Archaea diversity within thehot springs of Lake Magadi and LittleMagadi in Kenya. BMC Microbiology 16:136DOI 10.1186/s12866-016-0748-x
  6. Kambura A., R. Mwirichia, R. Kasili, E. Karanja, H. Makonde and H. Boga (2016).Diversity of fungi in sediments and water sampled from the hot springs of Lake Magadi and Little Magadi in Kenya. 10:330-338 DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2015.7879
  7. Mwirichia R., Alam I., RashidM., Manikandan V., Ba-Alawi., Kamau A.A., Ngugi D.K, Göker M., Klenk H.P, Bajic V2 and Stingl U.(2016).Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage - MSBL1 - from brine pools of the Red Sea. Scientific Reports6, Article number: 19181 doi:10.1038/srep19181
  8. Muwawa E.M, N.L.M. Budambula, Z. L. Osiemo, H. I. Boga and H.M. Makonde (2016). Isolation and characterization of some gut microbial symbionts from fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes and Odontotermesspp). African Journal of Microbiology Research 10:994-1004 DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2016.8060.
  9. Missiani O., J. H. Kimotho, J. Oyugi, F. Okoth, H.Kioko, S. Mining, N. L. M. Budambula, E. Giles, A.Andonov, E.Songok and C.Osiowy (2016).Hepatitis B infection is highly prevalent among patients presenting with jaundice in Kenya. BMC Infectious Diseases 16:101 DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-1409-2