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  1. Koskei EC., Kotut K., Nyaga J. & Oduor SO., (2019). Temporal variation in physico-chemical characteristics, phytoplankton composition and biomass in Lake Solai, Kenya. International Journal of Aquatic Science. Vol 10 issue 2, 101-111.


  1. Kairu A., Upton C., Huxhamc M. ,K. Kotut., Mbechee R., and Kairo J. (2017). From Shiny Shoes to Muddy Reality: Understanding How
    Meso-State Actors Negotiate the Implementation Gap in Participatory Forest Management. Society & Natural Resources Vol. 0 , Iss. 0,0.
  2. Luo W., H. Li, K. Kotut and L. Krienitz (2017).  Molecular diversity of plankton in a tropical crater lake switching from hyposaline to subsaline conditions: Lake Oloidien, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 788:205-229.


  1. Mutiga M. I., P.K. Muoria, K. Kotut and H.W. Karuri (2016).  Behavioural Patterns and Responses to Human Disturbances of Wild Somali Ostriches (Struthio molybdophanes) in Samburu, Kenya.  International Journal of Advanced Research 4(8): 495-502.
  2. Krienitz L., C. Bock, P.K. Pawan, K. Dadheech, K. Kotut, W.Luo and M. Schagerl (2016).  An Underexplored Resource for Biotechnology: Selected Microphytes of East African in Soda Lakes and Adjacent Waters. In Soda Lakes of East Africa by M. Schagerl (Ed). pp 323-343ISBN: 978-3-319-28620-4 (Print) 978-3-319-28622-8 (Online) Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland.
  3. Oduor S.O. and K. Kotut (2016).  Soda Lakes of the East African Rift System: The Past, the Present and the Future. In Soda Lakes of East Africa by M. Schagerl (Ed). pp 365-374 ISBN: 978-3-319-28620-4 (Print) 978-3-319-28622-8 (Online) Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland.
  4. Krienitz L., D Krienitz, P.K. Dadheech, T. Hübener,  K. Kotut, W. Luo, K. Teubner, and  W. D. Versfeld(2016). Food algae for Lesser Flamingos: a stocktaking. Hydrobiologia 775: 21-50.


  1. Dadheech, P.K., Mahmoud, H., Kotut, K., Krienitz, L. (2014). Desertifilum fontinale sp. nov. (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) from a warm spring in East Africa, based on conventional and molecular studies. Fottea, Olomouc, 14(2): 129–140


  1. Metcalf, J.S., Banack, S.A., Kotut, K., Krienitz, L., Codd, G.A., 2013. Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaiasminor. Chemosphere 90: 835 – 839.
  2. Krienitz, L., Dadheech, P.K.& Kotut, K., 2013. Mass developments of a small sized ecotype of Arthrospira fusiformis in Lake Oloidien, Kenya, a new feeding ground for Lesser Flamingos in East Africa. Fottea, Olomouc, 13(2): 215–225.
  3. Krienitz, L. Dadheech, P.K., Jutta Fastner, Kotut, K. 2013. The rise of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria in Lake Naivasha, Great African Rift Valley, Kenya. Harmful Algae 27: 42 – 51.
  4. Dadheech, P.K., Glockner, G., Casper, P., Kotut, K., Mazzoni, C.J., Mbedi, S. & Krienitz, L. 2013. Cyanobacterial diversity in the hot spring, pelagic and benthic habitats of a tropical soda lake. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 85: 389 – 401.


  1. Krienitz, L., Dadheech, P.K., and Kotut, K. 2012. Mass developments of the cyanobacterium Anabaenopsis and Cyanospira(Nostocales) in the soda lakes of Kenya: ecological and systematic implications. Hydrobiologia(DOI 10.1007/s10750-012-1346-z).
  2. Luo, W. Kotut, K. and Krienitz, L. 2012. Hidden diversity of plankton in the soda lake Nakuru, Kenya, during a phase of low salinity revealed by SSU rRNA gene clone library. Hydrobiologia(DOI 10.1007/s10750-012-1310-y).
  3. Krienitz, L., Bock, C., Kotut, K. and Proschold, T. 2012.Genotypic diversity of Dictyosphaerium-morphospecies (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae) in African inland waters, including the description of four new genera. Fottea, Olomouc, 12(2): 231-253.
  4. Ngángá, V.G., Kariuki, F.W. and Kotut, K. 2012. A Comparison of the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of greywater from water deficient households in Homabay Town and Githurai Estates in Kenya. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 5:110-118.
  5. Kariuki, F.W., Ngángá, V.G. andKotut, K. 2012. Hydrochemical characteristics, plant nutrients and metals in household greywater and soils in Homa Bay Town. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 5:103-109.
  6. Dadheech, P.K., Mahmoud, H, Kotut, K. and Krienitz, L. 2012. Haloleptolyngbyaalcalis gen. et sp. nov., a new filamentous cyanobacterium from the soda lake Nakuru, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 691: 269–283.
  7. Krienitz, L., Bock, C, Kotut, K. & Luo, W. 2012. Picocystissalinarum (Chlorophyta) in saline lakes and hot springs of East Africa. Phycologia, 51: 22–32.


  1. Kariuki, F.W.,Kotut, K. and Ngángá, V.G., 2011. The potential of a low cost technology for greywater treatment. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 4: 32-39.
  2. Kotut, K. & Krienitz, L., 2011. Does the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis exist in the soda lakes of East Africa? Hydrobiologia, 664: 219–225.
  3. Kotut, K, Nganga, G.G., Kariuki, F.W., 2011. Physico-chemical and microbial quality of greywater from various households in Homa Bay town. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 4:162-169.


  1. Dadheech, P.K., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Kotut, K., Novelo, E., Lemma, B, Proschold, T. &Krienitz, L. 2010. Phylogenetic relationship and divergence among planktonic strains of Arthrospira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) of African, Asian and American origin deduced by 16S–23S ITS and phycocyanin operon sequences.Phycologia, 49 (4): 361–372.
  2. Krienitz L. & Kotut K. 2010. Fluctuating algal food populations and the occurrence of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in three Kenyan Rift Valley lakes. Journal of Phycology, 46: 1088–1096.


  1. Ballot, A.,Kotut, K., Novelo, E. &Krienitz, L., 2009. Changes of phytoplankton communities in Lakes Naivasha and Oloidien, examples of degradation and salinization of lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley. Hydrobiologia 632:359–363 (Published online in June 2009).
  2. Dadheech, P.K., Krienitz, L.,Kotut, K., Ballot, A. & Casper, P. 2009. Molecular detection of uncultured cyanobacteria and aminotransferase domains for cyanotoxin production in sediments of di¡erentKenyan lakes.FEMS Microbiology Ecology 68: 340–350.


  1. Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Krause, E., Kotut, K., Pütz, S., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. &Codd, G.A. 2006. Analysis of the cyanotoxinsanatoxin-a andmicrocystins in Lesser Flamingo feathers. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry 88: 159-167.
  2. Kotut, K., Ballot, A., Krienitz, L. 2006. Toxic cyanobacteria and its toxins in standing waters of Kenya: implications for water resource use. Journal of Water & Health 4: 233-245.


  1. Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. 2005. Cyanobacteria in hot springs of East Africa and their potential toxicity. Algological Studies 117: 297-306.
  2. Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Codd, G.A., Kotut, K., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. 2005. Contribution of toxic cyanobacteria to the massive deaths of Lesser Flamingos at saline-alkaline lakes of Kenya. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 29: 783-786.
  3. Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C. & Pflugmacher, S. 2005. Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in the alkaline crater lakes Sonachi and Simbi, Kenya. Harmful Algae 4: 139-150.


  1. Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A. & Pflugmacher, S. 2004. Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in three alkaline Rift valley lakes of Kenya – Lakes Bogoria, Nakuru and Elmenteita. Journal of Plankton Research 26: 925-935.


  1. Krienitz, L., Ballot, A.,Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pütz, S., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A. &Pflugmacher, S. 2003. Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 43. 141-148.
  2. Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C., Kotut, K. &Krienitz, L. 2003 .Cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Limnologica 33, 2-9.
  3. Codd, G.A., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. & Kotut, K. 2003.A cyano-anomaly? Cyanobacterial toxins as contributors to Lesser Flamingo mass deaths. Harmful Algae News. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission UNESCO 24:1-2.
  4. Codd, G.A., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. & Kotut, K. 2003. Susceptibility of flamingos to cyanobacterial toxins via feeding. Veterinary Record 152: 722-723.


  1. Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Wiegand, C., Kotut, K., Codd, G.A. & Pflugmacher, S. 2002. Cyanotoxin producing bloom of Anabaena flos-aquae, Anabaena discoidea and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal of Applied Botany 76, 179-183.


  1. Kotut, K., Njuguna, S.G., Muthuri, F.M., &Krienitz, L. 1999. The physico-chemical conditions of Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, a new man made lake in northern Kenya. Limnologica 29; 377 - 392.


  1.  Kotut, K., Krienitz, L & Muthuri, F.M. 1998. Temporal changes in phytoplankton structure and composition at the Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 368; 41 - 59.
  2. Kotut, K., Krienitz, L., Wolfram, S., Monika, E. & Grigorszky, I. 1998. Some interesting cyanoprocaryotes and algae from Turkwel Gorge reservoir, Kenya. Algological Studies 91; 37 - 55.
  3. Krienitz, L., Kotut, K., & Hegewald, E. 1998. Some interesting coccal green algae (Chlorellales) from Turkwel Gorge Reservoir, Kenya. Algological Studies 91; 57 - 69.


  1. Patterson, G.& Kiplagat, W.K. 1995. The influence of diel climatic cycle on the depth time distribution of phytoplankton and photosynthesis in a shallow equatorial lake (Lake Baringo), Kenya. Hydrobiologia 1 - 8.